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© Milton N. Bradley 2008

Glossary Of Japanese Go Terms

AJI (ah’-gee): Potentially exploitable threats remaining in a position.

AJI KESHI (ah’-gee keshi): A bad move which needlessly neutralizes the potentially exploitable weaknesses in the opponent’s position.

ATE (ah’-tay): A move that gives atari.

ATARI (ah-tah'-ree): A condition in which one or more units has been reduced to only a single liberty, and is therefore subject to capture on the opponent's next play.

ATSUMI (atsumi): Thickness.

BOSHI (bo-shee): “Cap”. Usually, a one point skip above an opposing stone.

DAME (dah'-may): A neutral liberty shared by safe White and Black groups. Does not count as a point for either side.

DAN (dahn): "Step". The designation of playing strength for those of master level. Ranges from 1-Dan to 9-Dan, but professional ranks are separate and much stronger.

DANGO (dan-go): “Dumpling” = A shapeless mass of stones with little eyemaking potential.

DE (day): A move which pushes between two opposing stones.

FUSEKI (fuh-say'-key): The full board Opening.

GETA (gay-tah): A trap or snare which can effectively capture opposing stones even when they still have several liberties.

GO (goh): The name of the game. (Called Wei Ch’i in Chinese, and Baduk in Korean.)

GOTE (goh-tay'): The converse of Sente. A move which makes no significant threat, and which therefore doesn't require an immediate response by the opponent.

GOTE NO SENTE (goh-tay no sen-tay): A Gote move which contains (often hidden) aggressive potential.

HANE (hah'-nay): A Diagonal attachment against an opposing stone.

HASAMI (hah-sah’-mee): A pincer.

HIKI (hee’-kee): “Draw back”.

HORIKOMI (hori-koh’-mee): A “throw-in” sacrifice which kills an eye and/or whose capture reduces the opponent’s liberty count.

JOSEKI (joh-say'-key): An analyzed sequence of plays which theoretically leads to a dynamically equal local result for both sides.

KAKARI (ka-kah’-ree): An approach move against a corner stone to prevent a Shimari.

KATA (kah’-tah): “Shoulder”. The point diagonally above a stone.

KATACHI (kah-tah’-chee): “Shape”. Usually, good shape.

KATATSUGI (kah’-tah-tsoo’-gi): The solid connection.

KATATSUKI (kah’-tah-tsoo’-kee): A shoulder attack.

KEIMA (kay-mah): The “Knight’s Move”.

KESHI (keshi): "Reduction”, or "minimization”. When played to reduce an opponent's Moyo (Sphere of Influence), Keshi consists of "light" moves, not too deep within the area of the opponent's strength.

KIKASHI (ki-kah'-shee): A forcing move which must be answered, and which therefore necessarily retains Sente, but which is incidental to the main flow of play. Such stones are typically abandoned after they have served their purpose of forcing the opponent's response, serving only as Aji thereafter.

KIRI (kiri): “Cut”.

KO (koh): "Eternity". An important, oft recurring tactical situation in which a single stone is captured and THE NO REPETITION RULE applies.

KOMI (koh'-mee): The points added to White's final score in “even” (no handicap) games to compensate for Black's first move advantage.

KOSUMI (ko-suh’-mee): The diagonal extension.

KYU (kyu): Rank. The designator of playing strength for players of less than Dan (master) strength. For amateurs, ranges from 35 Kyu (beginner) to 1 Kyu (just below master strength)

MIAI (mee-iy): Two complementary points of approximately equal importance in a given situation, such that whichever one a player occupies, the opponent can (and usually must) occupy the other.

MOYO (moh-yoh): A large Sphere Of Influence or Potential Territory.

NAKADE (nah-kah-day): The placement of stones inside an opposing group to reduce the shape to one eye.

NADARE (nah-dah’-ray): The “Avalanche” Joseki.

NIDAN (nee’-dahn): “Two Step”.

NI-REN-SEI (Nee-Ren-Say): A Fuseki pattern in which a player occupies both 4-4 points on a single side.

NOBI (noh’-bee): Extend.

NOZOKI (noh-zoh’-kee): A peep which threatens to cut.

NUKI (nookee): A capture.

ONADARE (oh’-nah-dah’-ray): The “Large Avalanche” Joseki.

OKI (oh-kee): A placement, usually intended to steal eyes.

OSAE (oh’-sah-ay): A blocking move.

OSHI (oh’-shee): “Push”. Usually along a line atop (or alongside) an opponent’s stone or line of stones.

PONNUKI (pon-nuh’-kee): A powerful shape created when 4 stones capture a single opposing stone.

SABAKI (Sah-bah'-kee): "Disposal". Light resilient shape which allows a group to be easily settled, or to be partly or totally sacrificed if necessary without significant penalty.

SAN-REN-SEI (San-Ren-Say): A Fuseki pattern in which a player occupies all 3 handicap points on one side.

SEMEAI (semi-eye): A life-or-death fight (= race to capture).

SENTE (Sen'-tay): The initiative. A move central to the major strategic and/or tactical motifs of the game, which therefore requires the opponent's response, and which cannot be ignored without significant penalty! Such stones typically have long term implications, and must therefore be watched and defended. The converse of Gote. Closely related to Kikashi.

SHICHO (shih'-cho): The Ladder.

SHIMARI (shih-mah'-ree): A Corner Enclosure.

SHINOGI (shih-noh’-gee): A sequence of moves to provide a weak group with either escape or good eyemaking shape.

SUBERI (soo-beh’-ree): “Slide”. A Knight’s Move toward the edge, usually from the third line to the second line.

SUJI (soo'-gee): "Style" or "skillfulness". Clever, artistic play. See Tesuji.

TAISHA (tie-sha): The “Great Slant” Joseki.

TENUKI (teh-nuh’-kee). “Play elsewhere”.

TESUJI (teh-soo'-gee): A Suji which raises the overall efficiency of the player's local (and sometimes global) stones to their highest possible level.

TOBI (tobi): A jump (= skip).

TSUGI (tsu’-gi): A connection.

TSUKE (tsu’-kay): An attachment to an opposing stone.

TSUME (tsu’-may): An extension which inhibits the opponent’s extension.

TSUME GO (tsoo’-may GO): A life-or-death problem.

UCHIKOMI (oo’-chee-ko-mi): An invasion.

WARIKOMI (wah’-rih-koh’-mee): A placement between two opposing stones intended to set up cutting points.

WARIUCHI (wah’-rih-oo’-chee): A wedge (placement) which has room to expand on both sides.

WATARI (wah-tah’-ree): A connection at board edge.

YOSE (yoh'-say): The Endgame.

YOSU-MI (yoh’-suh mih’), formerly Yosu-miru : “Wait And See”. A probe intended to retain sente while inducing the opponent to fix the shape of the stones.

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